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    中國新一代“人造太陽”總體安裝正式開始
      [2019-06-13]  作者:辦公室 王旭杰  

    日前,中國環流器二號M(HL-2M)裝置主機線圈系統在成都成功實現交付,這標志著中國自主研制的新一代“人造太陽”總體安裝正式開始,中國人離實現聚變清潔能源的夢想又跨近一步。

    一、成功突破多項關鍵技術難題

    中國環流器二號M裝置是中國最大的托卡馬克裝置,主要研究和平利用核聚變,使其成為一種幾乎取之不盡的清潔能源,該裝置也被稱為“人造太陽”。

    該設備從概念設計、設計定型到制造完成凝聚了研發團隊大量心血,相繼攻克了復雜曲面成型技術、復雜結構焊接及防變形技術、聯體成環技術以及真空大窗口高精度加工技術等多項關鍵技術難題,并在研制過程形成了一批擁有自主知識產權的科技創新成果。

    該裝置是中國開展聚變堆核心技術研究的關鍵平臺,將積累大科學工程裝置設計、建設和運行等方面的寶貴經驗,大幅提高我國聚變研究手段和能力,為我國參與國際熱核聚變實驗堆(ITER)實驗與運行以及自主設計建造未來聚變堆提供重要技術支撐,為我國深度參與聚變國際合作、自主設計建造未來中國聚變堆奠定堅實基礎。該裝置由、有望將等離子體電流從我國現有裝置的1兆安培提高到3兆安培,等離子體溫度將超過2億度。

    二、“人造太陽”重大進展匯總

    2003年1月國務院批準我國參加國際熱核聚變實驗堆(ITER)計劃談判,2006年5月,中國ITER談判聯合小組與其他成員共同草簽ITER計劃協定。2013年1月5日“人造太陽”實驗裝置輔助加熱工程的中性束注入系統在綜合測試平臺上成功實現100秒長脈沖氫中性束引出。

    2018年11月12日,“人造太陽”首次達到1億度。該實驗實現了高約束、高密度、高比壓的完全非感應先進穩態運行模式,為正在進行的中國聚變工程實驗堆(CFETR)工程和物理設計提供了重要的實驗依據與科學支持。

    2019年4月22日,中國環流器二號A(HL-2A)首次大規模對外開放。

    三、參與“人造太陽”我國面臨重大機遇

    ITER計劃是目前全球規模最大、影響最深遠的國際科研合作項目之一。中國團隊編制推演一套與ITER組織機制契合的標準化項目管理體系,我國運行管理國際化程度大幅提升。

    在參與“人造太陽”計劃過程中,我國的工程制造水平成功突破多項瓶頸,“中國造”在國際上的逐漸享有更高的聲譽,極大地助力核電“走出去”的步伐。除此之外,我國在核聚變領域相關科學技術也實現長足發展,填補了多項技術空白,掌握完全自主知識產權,這些核心技術在諸多領域中都有廣泛的應用,并以ITER計劃為契機,國內培養了上千位工程、物理和管理方面的人才。

    與中國核聚變技術能力同步提升的,還有大科學工程項目計劃的管理水平大跨步前進。目前,ITER組織中方職員比例已經超過9%,僅次于歐盟。中國借此培養了一大批懂得國際規則的科學項目工程管理人才,為未來中方牽頭國際大科學工程計劃奠定了人才基礎。

    目前,我們還應培養和輸送更多高層次管理人才到國際組織中去,以期在科技外交和開展國際合作中,掌握更多話語權,發揮更大的影響力。并推動企業開展尖端技術創新,參與國際平臺的激烈競爭,在民用產品和經濟領域占領制高點,在參加ITER大科學工程中尋求更大發展機遇。

    ICP備案編號:京ICP備18056836號   版權所有:生態環境部核與輻射安全中心

    電話:010-62257807   傳真:010-62257804   地址:北京市海淀區紅聯南村54號   郵編:100082

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